Extra Resources

1.1 THE BRITISH ISLES, GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UK
 
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A Short History of the United Kingdom
 
In 1282 Edward I, king of England, conquered Wales and in 1535 it was formally annexed to England. 
In 1603 James VI of Scotland became James I of England. In 1707 the two crowns of England and Scotland united in the Kingdom of Great Britain.
England invaded Ireland in 1171, during the reign of King Henry II. In 1541 Henry VIII became king of Ireland. In 1801 Ireland was formally annexed to the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Act of Union and formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 southern Ireland became independent and the Irish Free State was proclaimed, while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom. In 1927 the United Kingdom changed its formal title into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
 
WRITING
Write the historical event corresponding to each date:
 
1171: _____________________________________________________________
1282: _____________________________________________________________
1541: _____________________________________________________________
1603: _____________________________________________________________
1707: _____________________________________________________________
1801: _____________________________________________________________
1922: _____________________________________________________________
1927: _____________________________________________________________
 
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1.2 HISTORY TIMELINE 
 
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From the Romans to the Normans 
 
MOVIE TIME! 
 
King Arthur is a 2004 film directed by Antoine Fuqua, based on the legend of King Arthur. It stars Clive Owen as King Arthur and Keira Knightley as Guinevere.
King Arthur was a legendary king who led the defence of Romano-Celtic Britain against Anglo-Saxon invaders. King Arthur is famous for his sword Excalibur, his castle at Camelot, his wife the Queen Guinevere, his brave knight Sir Lancelot and the other Knights of the Round Table.
 
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ZOOM ON 
Religion in the United Kingdom
 
According to the 2001 census, Christianity is the main religion in Britain (72% of the population). This group includes the Church of England, the Church of Scotland, Catholic, Protestant and other Christian denominations. 
People with no religion is the second largest group (15% of the population), while about 5% of the population belongs to non-Christian religions, such as Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Jewish and Buddhist.
 
Religions in Great Britain - UK Census 2001
 
 Religion/Denomination Current religion
Percent
%
Christian
42,079,000 71.58
None
9,104,000 15.49
Muslim
1,591,000 2.71
Hindu
559,000 0.95
Sikh
336,000 0.57
Jew
267,000 0.45
Buddhist
152,000 0.26
All religions 44,984,000 76.5
Other 179,000 0.3
Not Answered 4,289,000 7.3
No religion +
Not Answered 13,393,000 22.78
Base 58,789,000 100
Source: UK 2001 Census 
 
 
 
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MOVIE TIME! 
 
Many books written by Charles Dickens have been adapted for films. The most recent versions include the 2005 film Oliver Twist directed by Roman Polansky and the 2009 film A Christmas Carol, directed by Robert Zemeckis and starring Jim Carrey in several roles. These include the protagonist Ebenezer Scrooge, a greedy cold-hearted old man who despises Christmas, and the three ghosts who haunt him.
 
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ZOOM ON
Evacuation of children in films
 
During the Second World War London and other British towns were heavily bombed. For this reason more than 800,000 children of school-age were evacuated from the towns to the countryside.
In The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe based on C. S. Lewis’s first book of The Chronicles of Narnia, the story begins in 1940 during World War II. The four Pevensie children are evacuated from London to live in Professor Digory Kirke’s house in countryside, where they find the wardrobe portal to the magical world of Narnia.
In the Disney sequel to Peter Pan, Return to Neverland, Wendy Darling's children Jane and Daniel are going to be evacuated when Jane is kidnapped by Captain Hook. The first part of the movie tells about the evacuation order and how children need Peter Pan now more than ever. 
 
 
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1.2 LONDON 
 
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CURIOSITIES
London taxi drivers must know all the 25,000 streets in the center of London before they can get a licence to drive cab! The test they must pass is called The Knowledge.
 
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1.4 TOURING THE UK
 
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ZOOM ON
From Cornwall to France
 
St. Michael’s Mount is a tidal island located 366 metres off the south-western coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is a civil parish and is united with the town of Marazion by a man-made causeway passable between mid-tide and low water.
 
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Mont St. Michel in Normandy, France is also a rocky tidal island. It is located approximately one kilometre off the country's north-western coast, at the mouth of the Couesnon River near Avranches.
 
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MOVIE TIME!
 
Shadowlands is a 1993 biographical film directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Anthony Hopkins and Debra Winger. Set in the 1950’s, the film focuses on the reserved, middle aged bachelor C. S. Lewis, an Oxford University academic at Magdalen College and author of The Chronicles of Narnia, and his relationship with  the divorced American poet Joy Gresham and her young son Douglas. 
 
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CURIOSITIES 
 
The word “shambles” means a place where animals are slaughtered. The street “The Shambles” in York is so called because most of the premises were once butchers' shops. The hooks from which carcasses were hung and the shelves on which meat was laid out can still be seen outside some of them. 
 
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GROUP LAB ACTIVITY - Famous English people
 
Charles Darwin, Agatha Christie, Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel, Hugh Grant, 
David Beckam, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Lady Diana Spencer, Adele are some well-known English people from the past and the present.
 
In groups search for information about each of them and create a file with their photos and short biographies. 
 
 
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MOVIE TIME!
 
The 2007 fantasy film The Water Horse – Legend of the Deep, directed by Jay Russell, is based on the children’s novel The Water Horse by Dick King-Smith. In present-day Scotland, an American tourist couple go into a bar where they meet an old man who tells them a story about the Loch Ness Monster.
Angus, a young boy living on the shores of Loch Ness, discovers a large mysterious egg. An unknown creature hatches from it and Angus calls it Robinson, after Robinson Crusoe, and becomes the fabled Loch Ness monster.
 
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CURIOSITIES 
 
The Palace of Holyroodhouse, commonly called Holyrood Palace, is the setting for state ceremonies. Here Queen Elizabeth II spends one week at the beginning of each summer to carry out official engagements and ceremonies.
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CURIOSITIES
 
The Great Highland Bagpipe is a type of bagpipe native to Scotland and dates back to the 15th century.  It is used in the British military and in pipe bands.
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ZOOM ON  
Writing in Scotland 
 
Scotland and particularly Edinburgh have a long cultural tradition, going back to the Scottish Enlightenment with the philosopher David Hume and the pioneer of political economy, Adam Smith. In 2004 Edinburgh was declared the first UNESCO City of Literature. 
Sir Walter Scott, Robert Louis Stevenson and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle are the most important writers who lived and worked in Edinburgh. 
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Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) wrote historical novels such as Ivanhoe and Rob Roy.
 
 
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Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) is famous for his adventure books, like Treasure Island, and the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. 
 
 
 
 
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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) was the creator of the detective Sherlock Holmes.
Today J. K. Rowling, author of the Harry Potter novels, is a resident of Edinburgh.
 
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE
Scottish Gaelic or Scots?
 
English is the official language in Scotland, but Scottish Gaelic and Scots are also spoken.
Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language spoken in the Highlands and the Hebrides. Unlike Welsh, it is not an official language in the UK, but in 2005 it became an official language in Scotland. 
Scots is a Germanic language, similar to English, and is spoken in the Lowlands. It is classified as a “traditional language”. 
 
 
POETRY TIME! 
 
Robert Burns (1759-1796) is regarded as the national poet of Scotland. He wrote both in English and Scots. He actually used a “light” Scots dialect which could be understood beyond Scotland. Burns also worked to collect and preserve Scottish folk songs, sometimes revising and adapting them. His poem (and song) Auld Lang Syne is often sung in Scotland at Hogmanay on the 31st December, and Scots Wha Hae was used for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. 
My Love is Like a Red, Red Rose is a 1794 poem and song based on traditional sources. The lyrics of the song are simple but effective and describe a fresh and long lasting love. 
 
O my Love's like a red, red rose
That’s newly sprung in June;
O my Love's like the melodie
That’s sweetly play'd in tune.
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GROUP LAB ACTIVITY - Famous Scottish people
 
J. M. Barrie, Sean Connery, Simple Minds, Tony Blair and Amy Macdonald are some well-known Scottish people from the past and the present.
 
In groups search for information about each of them and create a file with their photos and short biographies. 
 
 
 
 
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SURF THE NET! 
The old steam Great Little Trains of Wales are a very special way of seeing some of the best scenery in Wales. Check the site www.greatlittletrainsofwales.co.uk and take a Virtual Tour of Wales.
   
                            
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Welsh National Opera 
 
Welsh National Opera (WNO) is an opera company founded in Cardiff in 1946.
In 2004 it acquired its first permanent home in Cardiff in the Wales Millennium Centre.
The opera company consists of a professional orchestra (The Orchestra of Welsh National Opera) and a professional choir (The Chorus of Welsh National Opera). The orchestra and the choir often perform at St David's Hall in Cardiff and at other venues throughout Wales, the United Kingdom and the rest of the world.
 
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POETRY TIME!
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Dylan Thomas (1914-1953) wrote poems, short stories and scripts for film and radio, which he often performed himself. His best-known radio play, Under Milk Wood, is set in a fictional Welsh fishing village. His best poems are And Death Shall Have No Dominion, Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night written for his dying father and Fern Hill, where he evokes his happy childhood visits to his aunt Annie's farm.
 
And I was green and carefree, famous among the barns
About the happy yard and singing as the farm was home,
In the sun that is young once only,
Time let me play and be
Golden in the mercy of his means.
 
POETRY TIME! 
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The River Wye forms part of the southern border between England and Wales. 
On the Welsh bank of the river, in the county of Monmouthshire, it is possible to see one of the most spectacular ruins in Wales, Tintern Abbey. 
The abbey was founded in the 12th century by the White Monks, who followed the Rule of St. Benedict. In 1536 it was abandoned as a consequence of King Henry VIII’s dissolution of monasteries.
In the Romantic Age Tintern Abbey inspired the painter J. M. W. Turner and also the poet William Wordsworth in his famous poem “Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey”, published in 1798 in the Lyrical Ballads. 
Revisiting the natural beauty of the Wye fills the poet with a sense of serenity and "tranquil restoration". Here the poet addresses to the River Wye (lines 55-57):
 
“How oft, in spirit, have I turned to thee,
O sylvan Wye! Thou wanderer through the woods,
How often has my spirit turned to thee!”
 
COMPREHENSION CHECK
Answer the following questions:
 
1. Where is the River Wye?
2. What is Tintern Abbey?
3. When was it founded?
4. When and why was it abandoned?
5. Who was inspired by Tintern Abbey?
 
 
CURIOSITIES
 
The eldest son of a British monarch receives the title of “Prince of Wales”. Prince Charles, Queen Elizabeth II’s son, is the first Prince of Wales to be able to speak Welsh since the Middle Ages!
 
 
GROUP LAB ACTIVITY - Famous Welsh people
 
Richard Burton, Anthony Hopkins, Tom Jones and Catherine Zeta-Jones are some well-known Welsh people.
In groups search for information about each of them and create a file with their photos and short biographies. 
 
 
Page 39
 
CURIOSITIES 
 
The Mourne Mountains in County Down were the inspiration for C. S. Lewis’ Kingdom of Narnia in the popular children’s book The Chronicles of Narnia.
Referring to the Mourne Mountains, Lewis wrote "I have seen landscapes ... which, under a particular light, make me feel that at any moment a giant might raise his head over the next ridge”.
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ZOOM ON 
The Giant’s Causeway 
 
According to a legend, the Scottish giant, Benandonner, challenged his greatest rival, the Irish giant Finn MacCool. The two giants had never met, so Finn invited Benandonner to Ireland for a decisive battle. There was no boat large enough to carry giants, so Finn built a causeway of huge stones across the water so that the Scottish giant could travel on dry land. However, Finn was terrified and he asked his wife for advice. She disguised him as a baby and placed him in a huge cradle. When the Scottish giant arrived, Finn’s wife invited him for tea and asked him not to wake Finn’s child. Looking at the massive “baby” in the cradle, Benandonner thought that if this was the child, he had no wish to meet the father. So he fled back to Scotland, ripping up the Causeway behind him, terrified that the awful Finn could follow him home.
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WRITING
In small groups, imagine what Finn, his wife and the Scottish giant said. Write the dialogues.
 
Page 40
 
MOVIE TIME!
 
On 2nd April 1912 the ship RMS Titanic left Belfast for Southampton, in England, bound for New York. On the night of 14th April, it struck an iceberg and sank the following morning, resulting in the deaths of 1,517 people.
The 1997 film Titanic, directed by James Cameron and starring Leonardo Di Caprio and Kate Winslet, won eleven Academy Awards. During the ill-fated voyage of the RMS Titanic, two young people of different social classes fall in love. 
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MUSIC TIME!
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The Irish rock band U2’s song Sunday Bloody Sunday refers to the events which took place on the 30th January 1972 in Derry during The Troubles. British soldiers opened fire on unarmed civil rights protesters: thirteen people were killed and many more were wounded.
Listen to the song and fill in the gaps with the following past participles:
 
Begun – broken – dug – lost – strewn – torn – won
 
I can’t believe the news today,
I can’t close my eyes and let it go away.
How long, how long must we sing this song?
How long? How long? 
‘Cause tonight we can be as one, tonight.
 
__________ bottles under children’s feet,
Bodies ________ across a dead end street,
But I won’t heed the battle call,
It puts my back up, puts my back up against the wall.
 
Sunday, bloody Sunday.
Sunday, bloody Sunday.
 
And the battle’s just ________,
There’s many ________, but tell me who has ________?
The trenches _________ within our hearts,
And mothers, children, brothers, sisters _________ apart.
 
Sunday, bloody Sunday.
Sunday, bloody Sunday.
 
MOVIE TIME!
 
The 2002 film Bloody Sunday, directed by Paul Greengrass, represents the events of 1972 Bloody Sunday in Derry in a documentary style. Bloody Sunday was inspired by Don Mullan's 1997 book Eyewitness Bloody Sunday. Mullan, who was a schoolboy witness of the events of Bloody Sunday, was co-producer and actor in the film. The book was as a major catalyst in the establishment of the new Bloody Sunday Inquiry chaired by Lord Saville. The Inquiry, the longest running and most expensive in British Legal History, lead to an historic apology by Prime Minister David Cameron on 15 June 2010. 
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GROUP LAB ACTIVITY - Famous Northern Irish people
 
C.S. Lewis, Seamus Heaney, Van Morrison and Liam Neeson are some well-known people from Northern Ireland.
In groups search for information about each of them and create a file with their photos and short biographies. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.5 THE UK POLITICAL SYSTEM
 
Page 42
 
ZOOM ON
How to make a law
 
Once a bill is introduced to the House of Commons, it is debated. Votes are often held to conclude a debate. If more than half MPs vote for it, the bill is sent to the House of Lords for approval. The Lords can send it back to the Commons for revision or modification or can pass it. If a bill is approved by a majority in the House of Commons and the House of Lords, it is formally agreed to by the Crown. This is known as the Royal Assent. This turns a Bill into an Act of Parliament. Finally, it becomes law in the UK. 
 
CURIOSITIES
From its institution until the seventeenth century, the Speaker was very often an agent of the King. If the news he brought from Parliament were not appreciated by the King, he was often considered responsible of it and for this reason executed. Seven Speakers were executed by beheading between 1394 and 1535!
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Page 44
 
CURIOSITIES
 
Kings and princesses in history were known by the names of the countries over which they ruled, so they signed themselves only with their first names. Before 1917, members of the British Royal Family had no surname, but only the name of the house or dynasty to which they belonged. Things changed in 1917, when George V officially adopted Windsor declaring that  “all descendants in the male line of Queen Victoria, who are subjects of these realms, other than female descendants who marry or who have married, shall bear the name of Windsor”. 
The surname Windsor was confirmed also by the Queen Elizabeth after she ascended the throne. With her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh whose surname is Mountbatten, she decided to distinguish their own descendents from the other members of the Royal Family, assuming for them the surname Mountbatten-Windsor.
 
1.6 FESTIVITIES AND TRADITIONS IN THE UK
 
Page 52
 
CURIOSITIES
 
A brunch is breakfast and lunch all in one! On Sunday people usually wake up later, so they have one meal late in the morning which includes all sorts of food, like cheese, toast, salad, eggs, pastries and hot or cold drinks.
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ZOOM ON
Afternoon Tea 
 
Tea is the national hot drink in Britain. Between 3 and 5 p.m. o’ clock p.m. people sometimes have a cup of tea, usually with milk, served with pastries or sandwiches or freshly baked scones with cream and jam. 
Afternoon tea was popular in the past when ladies invited friends at home in the afternoon. Nowadays, you can have afternoon tea at home or at tea rooms. 
The best places in London for a special afternoon tea are the Ritz in Piccadilly or the Savoy Hotel in the Strand.
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VOCABULARY 
Remember! Water is heated in a kettle, but tea is made in a teapot.
 
 
 
ZOOM ON
How to make a nice cup of tea
 
George Orwell, one of the most important 20th-century British writers, published a short essay, A Nice Cup of Tea, in the Evening Standard newspaper on the 12th January 1946. 
 
Read the essay and find out his eleven golden rules to make a nice cup of tea!
 
“If you look up 'tea' in the first cookery book that comes to hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of sketchy instructions which give no ruling on several of the most important points. 
This is curious, not only because tea is one of the main stays of civilization in this country, as well as in Eire, Australia and New Zealand, but because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent disputes.
When I look through my own recipe for the perfect cup of tea, I find no fewer than eleven outstanding points. On perhaps two of them there would be pretty general agreement, but at least four others are acutely controversial. Here are my own eleven rules, every one of which I regard as golden:
First of all, one should use Indian or Ceylonese tea. China tea has virtues which are not to be despised nowadays — it is economical, and one can drink it without milk — but there is not much stimulation in it. One does not feel wiser, braver or more optimistic after drinking it. Anyone who has used that comforting phrase 'a nice cup of tea' invariably means Indian tea. 
Secondly, tea should be made in small quantities — that is, in a teapot. Tea out of an urn is always tasteless, while army tea, made in a cauldron, tastes of grease and whitewash. The teapot should be made of china or earthenware. Silver or Britanniaware teapots produce inferior tea and enamel pots are worse; though curiously enough a pewter teapot (a rarity nowadays) is not so bad. 
Thirdly, the pot should be warmed beforehand. This is better done by placing it on the hob than by the usual method of swilling it out with hot water. 
Fourthly, the tea should be strong. For a pot holding a quart, if you are going to fill it nearly to the brim, six heaped teaspoons would be about right. In a time of rationing, this is not an idea that can be realized on every day of the week, but I maintain that one strong cup of tea is better than twenty weak ones. All true tea lovers not only like their tea strong, but like it a little stronger with each year that passes — a fact which is recognized in the extra ration issued to old-age pensioners. 
Fifthly, the tea should be put straight into the pot. No strainers, muslin bags or other devices to imprison the tea. In some countries teapots are fitted with little dangling baskets under the spout to catch the stray leaves, which are supposed to be harmful. Actually one can swallow tea-leaves in considerable quantities without ill effect, and if the tea is not loose in the pot it never infuses properly. 
Sixthly, one should take the teapot to the kettle and not the other way about. The water should be actually boiling at the moment of impact, which means that one should keep it on the flame while one pours. Some people add that one should only use water that has been freshly brought to the boil, but I have never noticed that it makes any difference. 
Seventhly, after making the tea, one should stir it, or better, give the pot a good shake, afterwards allowing the leaves to settle. 
Eighthly, one should drink out of a good breakfast cup — that is, the cylindrical type of cup, not the flat, shallow type. The breakfast cup holds more, and with the other kind one's tea is always half cold before one has well started on it. 
Ninthly, one should pour the cream off the milk before using it for tea. Milk that is too creamy always gives tea a sickly taste. 
Tenthly, one should pour tea into the cup first. This is one of the most controversial points of all; indeed in every family in Britain there are probably two schools of thought on the subject. The milk-first school can bring forward some fairly strong arguments, but I maintain that my own argument is unanswerable. This is that, by putting the tea in first and stirring as one pours, one can exactly regulate the amount of milk whereas one is liable to put in too much milk if one does it the other way round. 
Lastly, tea — unless one is drinking it in the Russian style — should be drunk without sugar. I know very well that I am in a minority here. But still, how can you call yourself a true tealover if you destroy the flavour of your tea by putting sugar in it? It would be equally reasonable to put in pepper or salt. Tea is meant to be bitter, just as beer is meant to be bitter. If you sweeten it, you are no longer tasting the tea, you are merely tasting the sugar; you could make a very similar drink by dissolving sugar in plain hot water.
 
Some people would answer that they don't like tea in itself, that they only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated, and they need sugar to take the taste away. To those misguided people I would say: Try drinking tea without sugar for, say, a fortnight and it is very unlikely that you will ever want to ruin your tea by sweetening it again. 
These are not the only controversial points to arise in connection with tea drinking, but they are sufficient to show how subtilized the whole business has become. There is also the mysterious social etiquette surrounding the teapot (why is it considered vulgar to drink out of your saucer, for instance?) and much might be written about the subsidiary uses of tealeaves, such as telling fortunes, predicting the arrival of visitors, feeding rabbits, healing burns and sweeping the carpet. It is worth paying attention to such details as warming the pot and using water that is really boiling, so as to make quite sure of wringing out of one's ration the twenty good, strong cups of that two ounces, properly handled, ought to represent.”
(from The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, Volume 3, 1943-45, Penguin ISBN, 0-14-00-3153-7)
WRITING
Summarize George Orwell’s 11 rules to make a nice cup of tea.
 
 
 
1.7 LIFESTYLES 
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ZOOM ON 
How English young people spend their leisure time
Spending time with friends and family, listening to music and watching television were the most common leisure activities carried out by young people aged 16 to 24 in their free time in England in 2007/2008 - 83 per cent, 83 per cent and 82 per cent respectively. The next most common activities were shopping and using the Internet/emailing performed by nearly 69 per cent young people. Going to the cinema and to pubs, bars and clubs was popular for 64 per cent and 60 per cent respectively. 
There were differences between young men and women in how they spend their leisure time. The most common activities performed by young men were watching television, 83 per cent and listening to music, 82 per cent while the most common activities for young women were spending time with friends and family, 87 per cent and shopping , 85 per cent. 
Source: Taking Part: The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport, Department for Culture, Media and Sport
 
 
Page 56
XXX Olympic Games: London  2012
Olympic Games 2012 have been for London a great opportunity to improve the East area of the city, that was  previously  an  industrial area and  it is currently  the poorest. This zone  was chosen in order to realize right there the “long term development” and the  regeneration of this part of London for future generation.  Moreover, the whole local community has received a lot of benefits, such as city transport improvements, new job opportunities, better conditions of life and several kinds of business in which to be involved.  The two main frameworks realized are: the Olympic Park and the Olympic Village.
The Olympic Park  was created thinking that all the facilities included in the Park will be later adapted for community use. At the end of the Games it has become the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park and represents one of the largest urban Parks realized  in Europe.
 The Olympic Village, residential area in which over 17000 athletes lived during the Games, represents  a lasting legacy for east London and will be converted  into 2800 new homes,  including 1379 affordable homes and student’s residences. 
The 2012 Summer Olympic Program  included  26 types of sports and a total of 39 disciplines. 
Wenlock  and Mandeville are the names of the two mascots that, according to the legend that follows them, were forged by two drops of molten metal, the same used to build the new Olympic Stadium. 
Wenlock, which is orange and silver, is the mascot of the Olympics while its twin, which is  blue, is that of the Paralympics.  
SURF THE NET!
Find  more information about the 2012 Olympic Games in London at www.london2012.com  How many medals did Italy win? Check the site www.londra2012.coni.it 
 
 
1.9 BRITISH MUSIC
 
Page 62
 
MOVIE TIME!
 
Across the Universe is a 2007 musical film directed by Julie Taymor. Its soundtrack includes 33 of The Beatles’songs! The love story between Jude, a young man from Liverpool, and Lucy, an American young woman involved in an anti-war group, is set in Liverpool and the USA in the early 1960’s.
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Page 65
 
 
 
ZOOM ON 
Band Aid and Live Aid: when rock meets charity
 
Band Aid was a charity supergroup of British and Irish musicians founded in 1984 by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure (from the band Ultravox) to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia. They released the song Do They know It’s Christmas? on the 29th November 1984. The record went straight to number one in the UK singles charts and became the biggest-selling single of all times in the UK.
Bob Geldof and Midge Ure also organized the Live Aid, a concert held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, UK and JFK Stadium in Philadelphia, USA on 13 July 1985.
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ZOOM ON 
Live 8 
 
In 2005 Bob Geldof and Midge Ure organized another major musical event, the “Live 8”, a series of benefit concerts which took place in the G8 states and South Africa on 2nd and 6th July. Its aim was to support the UK’s “Make Poverty History” campaign and the Global Call for Action Against Poverty. The concerts preceded the G8 Conference and Summit held in Scotland from 6th to 8th July. At the end of the summit G8 leaders increased aid to developing countries and most of all to Africa. 
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CURIOSITIES 
 
After the popular English singer Adele performed at the 2011 annual pop music awards “BRIT Awards”, the song Someone Like You reached number one in the UK, while her album 21 also remained at number one. The Official Charts Company announced that Adele is the first living artist to have two top five hits in both the Official Singles Chart and the Official Albums Chart simultaneously since The Beatles in 1964!
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1.10 LITERATURE
Page 68
MOVIE TIME!
William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet  (1996), directed by Baz Luhrmann, is a film adaptation of William Shakespeare’s tragedy with the same name. Although it is a modernization of Shakespeare’s play and it is set in California, it retains the original dialogues. 
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MUSIC TIME!
The 1957 American Broadway musical West Side Story is based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. It takes place in New York City’s West Side in the mid-1950s. The musical is about the rivalry between the Jets and the Sharks, two teenage street gangs of different ethnic backgrounds: the Sharks, from Puerto Rico, and the Jets, from a white anglo working-class group. Tony, one of the Jets, falls in love with Maria, the sister of Bernardo, the leader of the Sharks. 
Listen to the famous song Maria from the musical. How many times do you listen to the word “Maria”? a) 30 b) 28 c) 32
 
 
 
William Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet 
The Balcony Scene (Act 2, Scene 2)
 
ROMEO [Coming forward.]:
But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? 
It is the East, and Juliet is the sun! 
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon 
Who is already sick and pale with grief 
That thou her maid art far more fair than she. 
Be not her maid, since she is envious. 
Her vestal livery is but sick and green, 
And none but fools do wear it. Cast it off.
It is my lady! O, it is my love! 
O, that she knew she were! 
She speaks, yet she says nothing. 
What of  that? Her eye discourses; I will answer it. 
I am too bold; 'tis not to me she speaks. 
Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven 
Having some business, do entreat her eyes 
To twinkle in their spheres till they return.
What if her eyes were there, they in her head? 
The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars 
As daylight doth a lamp; her eyes in heaven 
Would through the airy region stream so bright 
That birds would sing and think it were not night. 
See how she leans her cheek upon her hand! 
O, that I were a glove upon that hand, 
That I might touch that cheek!
JULIET:
Ay me!
ROMEO:
She speaks. 
O, speak again, bright angel, for thou art 
As glorious to this night, being o'er my head, 
As is a winged messenger of heaven 
Unto the white-upturned wond'ring eyes 
Of mortals that fall back to gaze on him 
When he bestrides the lazy puffing clouds 
And sails upon the bosom of the air.
JULIET:
O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo? 
Deny thy father and refuse thy name; 
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, 
And I'll no longer be a Capulet. 
ROMEO [Aside.]: 
Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?
JULIET:
'Tis but thy name that is my enemy.
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face. O, be some other name
Belonging to a man.
What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other word would smell as sweet.
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes 
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name;
And for thy name, which is no part of thee,
Take all myself.
ROMEO:
I take thee at thy word.
Call me but love, and I'll be new baptized;
Henceforth I never will be Romeo.
 
WORD BOX
yonder - là 
thou – you
art – are
vestal livery- abiti verginali
bold – coraggioso
‘tis – it is
to entreat – supplicare
to twinkle – scintillare
thou art – you are
o’er – over
to wonder – chiedere
to gaze – guardare
to bestride – stare a cavalcioni
bosom –seno
wilt not – will not
‘tis –it is
to doff – togliersi
thy – your
thee – you
thy – your
henceforth – d’ora in poi
 
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Prova anche tu il piacere dell’ascolto di una storia
ben narrata.

Il racconto orale è una delle più antiche forme
di comunicazione ed è da sempre il modo più diretto
e suggestivo per accedere a un contenuto.

L’audiolibro si basa su questo principio e ne rinnova la magia. Dal punto di vista didattico, l’ascolto facilita il processo di apprendimento
ed è di grande aiuto per la comprensione del testo, poiché il tono, la pronuncia, le pause, stimolano l’attenzione e accentuano il potere emotivo del racconto.